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IPC 359-374: Kidnapping, Abduction, Slavery, Forced Labour

IPC 359-374: Kidnapping, Abduction, Slavery, Forced Labour

1. Section 359-374 of the Indian Penal Code deals with kidnapping, abduction, slavery and forced labor. 
2. Kidnapping refers to the action of takinga person by force, threat, or deceit and holding them captive against their will. Kidnapping may be done for ransom, personal agenda or political reasons. 
3. Abduction is illegal taking away a person by persuasion, fraud, force or violence. 
4. Section 359 of the Indian Penal Code defines kidnapping as two kinds:
4.1.    Kidnapping from India, and 
4.2.    Kidnapping from lawful guardianship. 
5.  Section 360 IPC defines kidnapping from India. It states that, whoever conveys any person beyond the limits of India without the consent of that person, or of some person legally allowed to consent on behalf of that person, is said to kidnap that person from India. 
6. Section 361 IPC defines kidnapping from lawful guardianship. It states that- Whoever takes or entices any minor under sixteen …

Wrongful Restraint and Wrongful Confinement

Wrongful Restraint and Wrongful Confinement 
1. The term ‘wrongful restraint’ denotes a wilful obstruction of an individual to keep that individual from proceeding toward any path in which that individual has a privilege to continue.  2. According to section 339 of the Indian Penal Code, “Whoever voluntarily obstructs any person to prevent that person from proceeding in any direction in which that person has a right to proceed is said wrongfully to restrain that person”. 
3. There are certain exceptions to this definition. The obstruction of a private way over land or water in which a person in good faith believes him to have a lawful right to obstruct is not an offense within the meaning of this section. 
4. Section 341 of the Indian Penal Code defines punishment for wrongful restraint. It states that whoever wrongfully restrains any person shall be punished with simple imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month, or with fine which may extend to five hundred rupees, or with bo…

IPC 390-402: Robbery & Dacoity

IPC 390-402: Robbery & Dacoity
1. Sections 390-402 of the Indian Penal Code defines various laws related to Robbery & Dacoity. Sections 390, 392, 393, 394 & 401 of the IPC deals with robbery and IPC sections 391, 395, 396,399, 400 & 402 deals with dacoity while sections 397 & 398 are common to both.  
2. Robbery refers to the taking of something of value, whether money, property or other valuable assets from someone through the use or threat of physical force. Robbery is an aggravated form of theft or extortion.
3. Elements of robbery;
1.    The actual taking away of the money or property must have taken place.
2.    The person committing the robbery must have the intent to steal or the intent to cause wrongful loss to one and wrongful gain to another. 
3.    There must be a threat of violence or the use of physical force during the robbery. 
4.    Robbery must be done in the victim’s presence.
4. In all robbery, there is theft or extortion. Section 390 of the Indi…

What is IPC extortion? IPC 383-389 Top 11 Points 2020

IPC 383-389: Extortion 
1. Sections 383-389 of the Indian Penal Code defines various laws related to extortion. Section 383 of the IPC defines extortion. Section 384 of IPC specifies the penalty for extortion, while Section 385 specifies the punishment for an attempt to extortion. Section 386 to 389 contains much harsher punishments for aggravated forms of extortion. 

2. Section 383 of the Indian Penal Code defines extortion as an intentional act to put another person in fear of injury or any other harm to get his property or other valuable items. For example, A threatens B to kill his daughter if B does not pay 10 million rupees to A, this will be considered a case of extortion. 
3. The main motive of committing extortion is getting the property or any other valuable item by causing a wrongful loss to one person and wrongful gain to another person. 
4.   Essential elements for extortion;
1.  To deliver property or other valuable items: the real transfer of property or any other valuable s…

Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act Section 18–21

Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act–Right of Hindu Wife to Maintenance (Section 18–21)
1. Earlier the male-dominated society of our country didn’t allow any improvement in the status of married women. A lot of men were committing violence against defenceless women. To overcome this disability of our society The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956 along with the Hindu Marriage Act 1955, the Hindu Succession Act 1956, and the Hindu Guardians & Wards Act 1956 has been enacted to empower the married women of our state. 

2. According to Hindu law, marriage is a holy union for performing religious duties. These laws protect a woman by guaranteeing her fundamental rights, providing relief in case of cruelty, adultery, impotency, the claim of maintenance and alimony, etc. it further allows maintenance to the wife who cannot maintain herself. 
3. The right to maintenance arises from the concept that the head of an undivided family is bound to maintain its members. Section 3(b) of the Hindu…

IPC 378-382 THEFT: Top 15 Points 2020

1. Theft means dishonest removal of property out of the possession of any person without his consent. The crime of theft comes under offenses against property and has been dealt with under sections 378 to 382 of the Indian Penal Code. 
2. Under English laws theft is an offense punishable with imprisonment for 10 years under section 7 of the Theft Act, 1968 and defines theft as a person guilty of theft if he dishonestly appropriates property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the other. 

3. Section 378 of the Indian Penal Code defines theft as any person intending to take any movable property without honesty, out of the possession of any person without that individual's consent, is said to commit theft. 
4. Ingredients essential to consider an offense a theft;
1.    The accused must have dishonest intention to take the property. 
2.    The property concerned must be movable. 
3.    The property must be taken out of the custody of another person, resulting in…

Guardians and Wards Act

Guardians and Wards Act
1. We all know that children are physically and mentally immature so they need special safeguards and care. Our laws itself say that minors cannot act independently but can act only through the guardian. Most country's laws specify that parents are the legal guardian of the child and that the parents can designate who shall become their child's guardian in the event of their death. Sometimes the court will appoint guardians for the welfare of the child. 

2. In India, there are two important legislation regarding guardianship and custody. The first one is the Hindu minority and guardianship act 1956, and the second one is the guardians and wards act 1890. 
3. A minor refers to a person who has not completed the age of 18 years; Therefore, children less than 18 years of age are supposed to have a legal guardian. 
The guardians and wards act defines a guardian as a person having the care of the person of a minor or his property or both his person and property…